//以下优化开关可以忽略
//请勿使用于c++17及以上版本
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
#pragma GCC optimize("Ofast")
#pragma GCC optimize("inline")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fgcse")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fgcse-lm")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fipa-sra")
#pragma GCC optimize("-ftree-pre")
#pragma GCC optimize("-ftree-vrp")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fpeephole2")
#pragma GCC optimize("-ffast-math")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fsched-spec")
#pragma GCC optimize("unroll-loops")
#pragma GCC optimize("-falign-jumps")
#pragma GCC optimize("-falign-loops")
#pragma GCC optimize("-falign-labels")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fdevirtualize")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fcaller-saves")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fcrossjumping")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fthread-jumps")
#pragma GCC optimize("-funroll-loops")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fwhole-program")
#pragma GCC optimize("-freorder-blocks")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fschedule-insns")
#pragma GCC optimize("inline-functions")
#pragma GCC optimize("-ftree-tail-merge")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fschedule-insns2")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fstrict-aliasing")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fstrict-overflow")
#pragma GCC optimize("-falign-functions")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fcse-skip-blocks")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fcse-follow-jumps")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fsched-interblock")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fpartial-inlining")
#pragma GCC optimize("no-stack-protector")
#pragma GCC optimize("-freorder-functions")
#pragma GCC optimize("-findirect-inlining")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fhoist-adjacent-loads")
#pragma GCC optimize("-frerun-cse-after-loop")
#pragma GCC optimize("inline-small-functions")
#pragma GCC optimize("-finline-small-functions")
#pragma GCC optimize("-ftree-switch-conversion")
#pragma GCC optimize("-foptimize-sibling-calls")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fexpensive-optimizations")
#pragma GCC optimize("-funsafe-loop-optimizations")
#pragma GCC optimize("inline-functions-called-once")
#pragma GCC optimize("-fdelete-null-pointer-checks")
#define N 500050
#define INLINE __attribute__((optimize("O3"))) inline
#define R register

using namespace std;
namespace io {
    const int SIZE = (1 << 21) + 1;
    char ibuf[SIZE], *iS, *iT, obuf[SIZE], *oS = obuf, *oT = oS + SIZE - 1, c, qu[55]; int f, qr;
    // getchar
    #define gc() (iS == iT ? (iT = (iS = ibuf) + fread (ibuf, 1, SIZE, stdin), (iS == iT ? EOF : *iS ++)) : *iS ++)
    // print the remaining part
    inline void flush () {
        fwrite (obuf, 1, oS - obuf, stdout);
        oS = obuf;
    }
    // putchar
    inline void putc (char x) {
        *oS ++ = x;
        if (oS == oT) flush ();
    }
    // input a signed integer
    template <class I>
    inline void gi (I &x) {
        for (f = 1, c = gc(); c < '0' || c > '9'; c = gc()) if (c == '-') f = -1;
        for (x = 0; c <= '9' && c >= '0'; c = gc()) x = x * 10 + (c & 15); x *= f;
    }
    // print a signed integer
    template <class I>
    inline void print (I &x) {
        if (!x) putc ('0'); if (x < 0) putc ('-'), x = -x;
        while (x) qu[++ qr] = x % 10 + '0',  x /= 10;
        while (qr) putc (qu[qr --]);
    }
    //no need to call flush at the end manually!
    struct Flusher_ {~Flusher_(){flush();}}io_flusher_;
}
using io :: gi;//输入
using io :: putc;//输出字符
using io :: print;//输出

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